Does advertising work?
In short, we don't think it does anymore. Traditional advertising - the sort you would see in newspapers and magazines - has been replaced by an advert-saturated world, where we are bombarded by adverts constantly.
From billboards to TV, from pizza boxes to coffee cups, advertising is everywhere. You literally cannot get away from it. It's impossible to read an online article without having to scroll past embedded adverts - and the intrusive pop-up is the most malign of its kind.
In the boom of the 1950s, advertising was optimistic and aspirational. Ads promised you a better and more fulfilling life. Now they do nothing but frustrate us.
But what is the alternative?
For many, it's Google Ads.
Paying to secure advertising rights on Google can work to get your product out there. But there is a cost.
Imagine you are selling a product for £100. It costs £50 to make. That's a nice profit per unit.